References

For additional information, refer to these resources:

TUI Session Interpretation

This topic describes how to troubleshoot TUI scripts and subscriber input.

  • Verify scripts and subscriber input:
    1. Use the trace voicemail vxml all command for TUI session debugging.
    2. Displays received DTMF and the prompt played in response to it.
  • Use caller ID for differentiating calls to voicemail:
    1. Displays voicemail TUI position.
    2. Shows various levels of prompts and menus within the TUI.

Verify the scripts and subscriber input. The script that is named voicebrowser.aef provides the functionality of the Cisco Unity Express voicemail application. This script uses VXML to implement its functionality. These functions can be viewed by using the trace voicemail vxml all command, which provides the following information:

  • Displays received DTMF and prompts that are played in response to them
  • Uses caller ID for differentiating different calls into voicemail
  • Displays voicemail TUI position
  • Various levels of prompts and menus within the TUI

The caller ID of a user that calls in to voicemail is checked. If there is a mailbox that is associated with that phone number, the user is prompted for the PIN. If there is no matching mailbox, the user is prompted to enter the extension with which the mailbox is associated.

To view a call arriving in voicemail and a message being left for a subscriber in the form of trace command output, enter the trace voicemail vxml all command. The output can include the prompts that are played and any corresponding WAV files that are mapped to those prompts. The input of the caller can also be displayed in the output of the trace command.

Mailbox Issue Troubleshooting

This topic describes an example of a mailbox troubleshooting scenario.

  • A company is using Cisco Unity Express voicemail in a medium-sized office environment.
  • Voicemail appears to be working for most users.
  • However, a few subscribers cannot access their voicemail.

In this mailbox troubleshooting scenario, a company uses a Cisco Unity Express voicemail solution with Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express in a medium-sized office environment. Voicemail appears to be working for most users. However, a few subscribers cannot access their voicemail.

Most subscribers can use their mailboxes, so it seems that voicemail integration between Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express and Cisco Unity Express is working. The first step is to verify that individual IP phones are configured correctly in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express.

Check that the IP phones that are associated with the users who are reporting problems are configured to forward calls to the correct voicemail extensions. Compare the phones that are having problems with IP phones that work.

Verify the Cisco Unity Express mailbox configuration as follows:

  • Check that the subscriber has an associated mailbox.
  • Verify that the mailbox is enabled.
  • Verify that the extension of the subscriber is designated as a primary extension. Cisco Unity Express does not send an MWI to an E.164 number.

Occasionally, a mailbox becomes locked, and the owner cannot access the stored messages. A “mailbox is currently in use” message is typically played when a user tries to access a mailbox that is locked.

To unlock the mailbox, choose Voice Mail > Mailboxes. Check the box next to the mailbox that you want to unlock and click Unlock.

If these steps do not resolve the issue, enable Cisco Unity Express Mailbox trace options by using the GUI. Attempt to access a mailbox and then view the trace output via the CLI.

MWI Issue Troubleshooting

This topic describes an MWI troubleshooting scenario.

  • Voicemail is working normally.
    1. Messages can be recorded and retrieved.
  • The MWI is not working.
    1. On IP phones, the MWI light does not change to indicate that there are new messages.

In this MWI troubleshooting scenario, a company uses a Cisco Unity Express voicemail solution with Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express. Voicemail is working normally. All users are able to access their voicemail. Messages can be recorded and retrieved.

However, the MWI is not working. On IP phones, the MWI light does not change to indicate that there are new messages. What may cause this issue?

Occasionally, the MWI setting for a telephone can be out of synchronization with the message status in the voicemail database. For example, a user could have pending messages, but the MWI does not turn on. The administrator can refresh the MWI light so that the light reflects the current message status in the voicemail database. Use the following procedure to refresh the MWI for a single mailbox or for all mailboxes:

  • Choose Voice Mail > Message Waiting Indicators > Refresh.
  • To refresh one mailbox, check the box next to the user or group ID of the mailbox owner and click Refresh Selected. To refresh all mailboxes, click Refresh All.
Note

Cisco Unity Express will send MWI messages to refresh the MWI state. These messages are useful when troubleshooting or debugging MWI problems.

Enable Cisco Unity Express MWI tracing. Place a call, leave a voicemail message, and view the trace output. Use the trace voicemail mwi all command.

You can also verify the MWI notification by using the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express debug ccsip message command.

In this example, the DTMF method was not set on the dial peer in Cisco Unity Express. So there was no match in the DTMF method configuration on Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express and Cisco Unity Express.

SIP Troubleshooting

This topic describes how to troubleshoot the SIP integration of Cisco Unity Express and Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express.

  • Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express and Cisco Unity Express communicate via SIP.
  • Voicemail integration issues require troubleshooting SIP between these systems.
  • Verify that SIP configuration parameters, such as IP address, protocol version (SIP version 2), and dual tone multifrequency settings, are the same for both systems.

Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express and Cisco Unity Express communicate via SIP. This method of communication means that voicemail integration issues require troubleshooting SIP between these systems. Verify that the SIP configuration parameters, such as IP address and protocol version (SIP version 2), are the same for both systems.

SIP Call Flow

The figure shows a SIP call flow between Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express and Cisco Unity Express.

  • SIP INVITE message initiates the call setup between Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express and Cisco Unity Express.
  • The message direction depends on which side originates the call.
  • SIP 200 OK is sent when the call is answered.

SIP uses different message types to initiate and control voice calls. The SIP request messages are as follows:

  • INVITE: This message indicates that a user or service is being invited to participate in a call session.
  • ACK: This message confirms that a client has received a final response to an INVITE request.
  • BYE: This message terminates an existing call, and either user agent can send the message.
  • CANCEL: This message cancels pending searches, but it does not terminate calls that have been accepted.
  • OPTIONS: This message queries the capabilities of servers.
  • REGISTER: This message registers the user agent with the registrar server of a domain.

The SIP response messages are numbered and grouped in the following ranges:

  • 1xx: Information
  • 2xx: Successful responses
  • 3xx: Redirection responses
  • 4xx: Request failure responses
  • 5xx: Server failure responses
  • 6xx: Global responses

The SIP INVITE message initiates the call setup between Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express and Cisco Unity Express. The INVITE message direction depends on which side originates the call. The SIP 200 OK message is sent when the call is answered.

The following summarizes a successful SIP call setup:

  • Send INVITE message.
  • Receive 100 Trying.
  • Receive 180 Ringing.
  • Send 200 OK.
  • Receive ACK.

The following summarizes a successful SIP call clearing:

  • Send BYE message.
  • Receive 200 OK.
  • Receive ACK.
Note

Refer to RFC 3261 for more information about the SIP message types.

Common SIP configuration problems are the following:

  • Incorrect IP address for Cisco Unity Express
  • Incorrect codec configuration
  • Wrong destination pattern is configured, so the dial peer is not triggered for voicemail calls
  • Misconfigured DTMF relay
  • Incorrect SIP version
  • VAD is enabled by default; it must be disabled

To enable Cisco Unity Express SIP trace options by using the GUI, navigate to the Cisco Unity Express GUI, choose Administration > Traces, and check the caff-sip macro check box.

SIP messages are the same as messages that are viewed by using the Cisco IOS Software debug command. Additional internal Cisco Unity Express messages may also be displayed in trace output.

Note

Trace output is viewed via the CLI. For example, use the show trace buffer tail command to view trace output in real time.

SIP Issue Troubleshooting

This topic describes a SIP troubleshooting issue.

  • A company is using a Cisco Unity Express voicemail solution.
  • Currently, all users are experiencing problems accessing their voicemail.
  • Users report the following when pressing the Messages button:
    1. They hear a busy tone.
    2. The Unknown Number message is displayed on the phone.

In this SIP troubleshooting scenario, a company uses a Cisco Unity Express voicemail solution with Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express. All users are experiencing problems accessing their voicemail. What may be the reason?

  • The administrator suspects a problem with the voicemail system or an integration issue.
    1. All voicemail users experience the issue.
  • No issues are found during initial verification of the configurations.
  • The next step is to look at the connection between Cisco Unity Express and Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express.
    1. Use Cisco Unity Express SIP tracing to view traffic.

All voicemail users experience this issue, so the administrator suspects a problem with the voicemail system or an integration issue. The first action is to verify the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express and Cisco Unity Express configurations. In this example, no issues are found during the initial verification of the configurations and integration between Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express and Cisco Unity Express.

The next step is to look at the connection between Cisco Unity Express and Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express. Use Cisco Unity Express SIP tracing to view traffic between Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express and Cisco Unity Express. Alternatively, use the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express debug command to view the SIP traffic.

In this example, the codec was configured incorrectly. When debugging or tracing, take a look at the SIP INVITE message. The INVITE will contain SDP parameters for the call setup. In the trace, the INVITE and 200 OK SIP messages will have different codec types as follows:

  • INVITE requests G.729: a = rtpmap:18 G729/8000 0
  • 200 OK requests G.711 mu-law: a = rtpmap: 0 PCMU/8000

In a trace, the BYE message will contain a reason code for the call disconnection (cause = 65). Cause 65 indicates “bearer capability not implemented,” which indicates the wrong codec.

Additional and commonly seen cause codes include the following:

  • Unallocated (unassigned) number = 1
  • Normal call clearing = 16
Note

See the ITU Q.850 standard for a complete list of cause codes.

In this example, the dial peer is not configured to use the G.711 mu-law codec, so the default G.729 will be used. The voicemail dial peer must be configured for G.711 mu-law using the codec dial-peer configuration command to resolve the issue.

Cisco Unity Express Troubleshooting

This topic describes the Cisco Unity Express troubleshooting tools.

GUI administrator helps detect and categorize issues:

  • Reporting for real-time information to detect possible issues
  • MWI refresh, system parameters, and limits check

show commands can verify system parameters and status:

  • Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express show commands
  • Cisco Unity Express CLI show commands show incrementing error counters and focus on the module and entity causing the errors

Tracing will solicit detailed information from the system:

  • Information on timing and sequences of activities
  • Messaging and events between system components
  • Can be enabled from the GUI or the CLI, but can only be viewed from the CLI

The GUI, although effective for day-to-day additions, moves, and changes, is not an effective tool for troubleshooting the Cisco Unity Express system. You can use the GUI for reporting, to reload Cisco Unity Express, view the system configuration, refresh MWI lights if they are out of synchronization, and turn on the tracing function. To effectively troubleshoot, you must use the CLI tools and functions.

There are three categories of tools that can be used from the Cisco Unity Express CLI. The first category is theshow commands. Use the many available show commands to view the configuration, settings, and status of the Cisco Unity Express system.

Logging messages is another troubleshooting tool that you can use to diagnose a problem. The unsolicited messages that come out of the system have a severity level that is associated with them. These messages usually go to an internal login memory or to an external syslog server, if configured.

Tracing is the equivalent of debugging in Cisco IOS Software. Summary information to detailed information is displayed on the screen, sent to a syslog server, or stored in memory. Use the trace tools to focus on a specific aspect of the system.

To start troubleshooting Cisco Unity Express, use the show errors command to see which components of the system have errors. Invoke the problem that is occurring, if it is repeatable, and try to identify which modules are increasing the error counters.

Then, use the show logs command to view the logs and the show log name log-name command to view the contents of the log files. This information may further define the problem or component that is causing the errors.

Logging

This topic describes how logging works in Cisco Unity Express.

Four levels of logging output exist:

  • Info: Syslog levels Debug, Info, and Notice
  • Warning: Syslog level Warning
  • Error: Syslog level Error
  • Fatal: Syslog levels Critical, Alert, and Emergency

Three possible destinations for logging messages:

  • Message.log text file on the hard disk or flash of Cisco Unity Express, (default) 100-MB maximum size, history of two is kept
  • Console of Cisco Unity Express
  • External syslog server

There are four levels of output within the logging functions of Cisco Unity Express. These levels are listed here in order, from least significant to most significant:

  • Info: Informational messages and notices
  • Warning: Events that may require attention
  • Error: Significant events that can affect functions
  • Fatal: Critical alerts and emergencies that can affect the stability of the system

By default, a Cisco Unity Express Network Module system sends all four categories of logging messages to a messages.log file on the hard disk or flash. The messages.log text file has a maximum size of 100 MB. A history of two messages log files is kept as follows:

  • When the messages.log file reaches a set size, the system renames it messages.log.prev and starts a new messages.log file.
  • When the messages.log file once again reaches a predetermined size, the old messages.log.prev is deleted. The current messages.log file is renamed messages.log.prev, and another new messages.log file is created. This loop continues indefinitely.

The logging output can be directed to the following three destinations:

  • Messages.log: The logging messages can be sent to this text file, which resides on the storage of the Cisco Unity Express module. This action is the default.
  • Console: Real-time messages or historical logs can be displayed on the Cisco Unity Express console.
  • Syslog: The logging messages can be sent to an external syslog server.

Cisco Unity Express Trace Tool

This topic describes the Cisco Unity Express trace tool.

  • Equivalent of Cisco IOS Software debug command
  • Composed of modules:
    1. Module is composed of one or more entities
    2. Entity may have one or more activities under it
  • Output to trace buffer or stored in atrace.log file
  • Used as temporary troubleshooting tool
CUE(config)# log trace local enable
CUE# show trace
MODULE           ENTITY          SETTING
config-ccn       sip-subsystem   00000001
config-ccn       jtapi-subsystem 00000001
config-ccn       sip-trigger     00000001
...
LOG NAME                         STATUS
atrace.log                       enabled

Although logging consists of unsolicited messages, the administrator configures tracing. Tracing in Cisco Unity Express is the equivalent of using debug commands in Cisco IOS Software.

Knowledge of the system architecture is useful for understanding the structures within the trace settings. Within the trace tool, there are modules. Within the modules, there are entities. Entities are composed of one or more activities. When configuring tracing, the administrator can enable all of these entities or any combination of these entities.

The trace output is stored in the atrace.log file, which is stored in the Cisco Unity Express module.

Use the log trace local enable command to allow the trace buffer to be written to flash.

Note

Excessive tracing can cause performance issues in the Cisco Unity Express system. Use tracing as a temporary troubleshooting tool. Turn off tracing when the relevant output has been gathered.

trace Commands via the CLI

This topic describes the Cisco Unity Express trace command.

  • Tracing can be turned on independently for specific modules.
    1. Each module has a number of entities that can be traced individually.
    2. Each entity has activities that can be traced individually.
  • The trace all command overrides any prior, more granular trace command.
  • Trace on and off settings return to their default if Cisco Unity Express is rebooted. The no trace allcommand turns tracing off.
CUE# trace ?
   vmclient           Module
   aaa                 Module
   voiceview-ccn   Module
   um2                Module 
   management    Module
...

To enable tracing from the CLI, use the trace command. The trace command can be used to turn on a specific trace entity, a whole trace module, or all tracing. Turning on tracing for a higher-level object overrides tracing of lower-level objects.

Like debugging in Cisco IOS Software on a router, tracing does not survive the reboot of Cisco Unity Express. The trace setting returns to its defaults on a reboot. The no trace all command turns tracing off.

Enter the following to view the trace command options:

CUE# trace ?
  vmclient          Module 
  aaa               Module 
  voiceview-ccn     Module 
  
  management        Module
  um2               Module 
  sysdb             Module 
  operation         Module 
  editorexpress     Module 
  BackupRestore     Module 
  configapi         Module 
  gateway           Module 
  dbclient          Module 
  ccn               Module 
  config-ccn        Module 
  snmp              Module 
  voicemail         Module 
  all               Every module, entity and activity 
  rest              Module 
  ums               Module 
  security          Module 
  imap              Module 
  udppacer          Module 
  caff-sip          Module 
  voiceview         Module 
  capi              Module 
  entityManager     Module 
  smtpclient        Module 
  webInterface      Module 
  limitsManager     Module 
  webapp            Module 
  license           Module 
  eecompiler        Module
  superthread       Module 
  networking        Module
  sitemanager       Module 
  
  csta              Module 
  ntp               Module 
  dns               Module

The copy log logname url url command copies the logging files to a server, such as an FTP server. Once copied, the text-based log files can be viewed with a text editor.

Because the amount of information in the file can be significant, the search features of text editors can be useful for finding specific information or time stamps.

The trace.log trace output file is not text-based and cannot be viewed with a text editor. It may be necessary to send the trace.log file to Cisco when requested by technical support.

The log server address {ip-address | hostname} command can configure an external server for saving log messages.

If a syslog server is not present in the network, the logging messages that are stored in the log file can be viewed by sending the messages.log file to an FTP server. After the file is on the server, you can view the file by using any text editor. Using a text editor is much easier than trying to view the messages.log file on the console of the Cisco Unity Express system. To save the trace configuration upon rebooting, use the log trace bootcommand.

To display a list of events in memory, use the show trace buffer command in Cisco Unity Express EXEC mode. Stop the output by pressing Ctrl-C. The trace buffer in memory can be up to 10 MB in size. To display a list of events from the atrace.log file, use the show trace store command in Cisco Unity Express EXEC mode.

To trace large amounts of data, send the information directly to the FTP server. Offline traces have the least performance impact. This activity is accomplished from configuration mode as follows:

  • Use the log trace server url command to define the FTP server.
  • Use the log trace server enable command to enable trace output to the FTP server.
Note

Issue the show trace buffer tail command to view trace information in real time.

GUI Macro Feature

This topic describes how to enable Cisco Unity Express trace options by using the GUI.

  • Choose Administration > Traces to enable trace options.
    1. Same trace options as CLI.
    2. Traces cannot be viewed from the GUI.
  • Selecting a module automatically selects individual suboptions (macro level).
  • Example: Checking the caff-sip check box will also check all nested boxes.
  • Individual options can be checked or unchecked (micro level).

To enable Cisco Unity Express trace options using the GUI, choose Administration > Traces. The window displays a hierarchical listing of the system components.

To enable a trace on a system component, check the check box next to the name of the component. To expand the listing of components, click the plus (+) sign next to the upper-level components. Check the box next to an upper-level component (a module or entity) to enable the traces for all of the components that are under that component. Uncheck the box next to an upper-level component to disable the traces for all of the components that are under that component.

Note

The GUI and CLI have the same trace options. However, traces cannot be viewed from the GUI.

The Cisco Unity Express GUI macro feature speeds up the process of selecting trace options. When selecting a trace module, the macro automatically selects the individual suboptions. For example, after selecting the voicemail check box, all nested boxes are also checked. Individual options can be checked or unchecked at the micro level.

Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express

This topic describes how to follow a voicemail call logically through the system.

  • Verify Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express and the phone configuration.
  • Troubleshoot the sequence from call or call forward through to voicemail dial peer.
  • Use show and debug commands for troubleshooting.
dial-peer voice 4500 voip
 description voicemail CUE
 destination-pattern 45..
 session protocol sipv2
 session target ipv4:10.1.130.2
 dtmf-relay sip-notify
 codec g711ulaw
 no vad
telephony-service
 voicemail 4500
ephone-dn  1
 number 4001
 call-forward noan 4500 timeout 10

Verify the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express configuration and the phone setup. The troubleshooting sequence could begin from the ephone-dn call-forwarding configuration and go to the voicemail dial peer, or a direct call where the user presses the Messages button on the phone.

Troubleshooting can be simplified by following the voicemail sequence of events and the associated Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express configuration. For example, calls are forwarded from an individual phone to the voicemail extension. The voicemail extension is defined as a destination pattern in the voicemail dial peer, which specifies the Cisco Unity Express IP address as the session target.

The most likely reasons for a reorder tone are the following:

  • Cisco Unity Express is not set up and initialized.
  • The trigger number for the voicemail application is not set or is incorrect.
  • No ports are available for the voicemail application.
  • The wrong codec is used, or transcoders are not working properly.

Use show commands to verify the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express configuration and operation:

show telephony-service ephone-dn
show dial-peer voice summary
show call history voice
show call active voice

The Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express debug commands can be turned on and off independently for specific modules. Each module has several options that can be turned on individually. For example, the debug voip module has many options, including the dialpeer option.

By default, the debug output is sent to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express router console. No debug output will be displayed if the administrator uses Telnet or SSH to access the router. Use the terminal monitor command to direct debug output to Telnet or SSH. Debug settings return to their default settings if the router reboots. By default, all debugging options are off.

The following are some useful debug commands for troubleshooting voicemail integration issues in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express:

  • The debug ephone command is useful for troubleshooting IP phones.
  • The debug voice command is useful for troubleshooting voice problems.
  • The debug voip command is useful for troubleshooting VoIP.

To debug the voice call control API, use the debug voip ccapi privileged EXEC command. To trace the execution path through the call control API, use the debug voip ccapi inout command. The call control API serves as the interface between the call session application and the underlying network-specific software. This command shows how a call flows through the system.

Use the debug ccsip command to troubleshoot problems with SIP. The calls option traces the SIP call details as they are updated in the SIP call control block. The all option displays all SIP-related debug information. Use the messages option to view SIP messages.