Home Lab!

Well today I decided to get back into the lab at home and tidy up on some core UC skills and tasks. This is what I have achieved this weekend…

  • ESXi build
  • Layer 3 switch configuration to create networks for HQ Voice Servers + Voice VLAN/ESX Mgmt and also added my home PC to the switch so I can see all networks..
  • CUCM 10.5 Publisher build
  • Windows DNS Server (Lab.local forward look up zone)
  • 2 IP Phones registered (1 SCCP and 1 SIP)
  • RTMT for CUCM installed
  • Traces enabled
  • Played with CUCM traces and Translator X (Way cool!)
  • Real time traces with RTMT
  • CUC 10.5 Single Node Build
  • Integration with CUCM (Both SIP + SCCP methods)
  • MWI + Voicemail working (Had some issues with this and turned out just to be an issue with MWI not being enabled on the extension!! Doh!)

Note to self – This is the 1st time I have ever installed CUC. Was pretty much the same as CUCM…

One thing that I always notice in home labs…. installing CUCM and CUC is not a quick process. Also the time it takes for Tomcat to fully kick in is painful!

QoS: Cisco 2960 Lab

LAB_1

*Setup in Cisco Packet Tracer

Configuration

mls qos
!
!
interface FastEthernet0/1
 mls qos trust dscp
!
interface FastEthernet0/10
 mls qos trust cos
 mls qos trust device cisco-phone
!
interface FastEthernet0/11
 mls qos trust cos

Verification

CISCO_2960_SWITCH#sh mls qos interface Fa0/1
FastEthernet0/1
trust state: trust dscp
trusted mode: trust dscp
trust enabled flag: ena
COS override: dis
default COS: 0
DSCP Mutation Map: Default DSCP Mutation Map
Trust device: none
qos mode: port-based

CISCO_2960_SWITCH#sh mls qos interface Fa0/10 FastEthernet0/10 trust state: trust cos trusted mode: trust cos trust enabled flag: ena COS override: dis default COS: 0 DSCP Mutation Map: Default DSCP Mutation Map Trust device: cisco-phone qos mode: port-based
CISCO_2960_SWITCH#sh mls qos interface Fa0/11 FastEthernet0/11 trust state: trust cos trusted mode: trust cos trust enabled flag: ena COS override: dis default COS: 0 DSCP Mutation Map: Default DSCP Mutation Map Trust device: none qos mode: port-based

Traffic Shaping and Policing Lab Examples

*Taken from my GNS3 Lab

SHAPING

R1#sh policy-map
 Policy Map SHAPE_500
 Class DATA
 Traffic Shaping
 Peak Rate Traffic Shaping
 CIR 500000 (bps) Max. Buffers Limit 1000 (Packets)
 Class VOICE
 Traffic Shaping
 Average Rate Traffic Shaping
 CIR 500000 (bps) Max. Buffers Limit 1000 (Packets)

SYNTAX

class-map match-any DATA
 match protocol http
 match protocol secure-http
 match protocol ftp
class-map match-any VOICE
 match protocol rtp
!
!
policy-map SHAPE_500
 class DATA
 shape peak 500000
 class VOICE
 shape average 500000

Adding queuing with nesting.

class-map match-any DATA
 match protocol http
 match protocol secure-http
 match protocol ftp
class-map match-any VOICE
 match protocol rtp
class-map match-all ALL_TRAFFIC
 match class-map DATA
 match class-map VOICE
 match class-map class-default
!
!
policy-map PRIORITY
 class DATA
 bandwidth 50
 class VOICE
 priority 300
 class class-default
 fair-queue
policy-map SHAPE_500
 class ALL_TRAFFIC
 shape average 500000
 service-policy PRIORITY
R1#sh policy-map
 Policy Map PRIORITY
 Class DATA
 Bandwidth 50 (kbps) Max Threshold 64 (packets)
 Class VOICE
 Strict Priority
 Bandwidth 300 (kbps) Burst 7500 (Bytes)
 Class class-default
 Flow based Fair Queueing
 Bandwidth 0 (kbps) Max Threshold 64 (packets)
Policy Map SHAPE_500
 Class ALL_TRAFFIC
 Traffic Shaping
 Average Rate Traffic Shaping
 CIR 500000 (bps) Max. Buffers Limit 1000 (Packets)
 service-policy PRIORITY

POLICING

class-map match-any GARBAGE
match protocol edonkey
match protocol kazaa2
match protocol napster
match protocol winmx
policy-map GARBAGE_SMACKDOWN
class-map GARBAGE
police 56000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop
policy-map GARBAGE_SMACKDOWN
class-map GARBAGE
police 150000 conform-action transmit exceed-action set-pre-transmit 0 violate-action drop
show policy-map
You should see a Bc and a Be indicating a dual bucket model

CIR/32 = Bc (32 = default value – 32 intervals)

DSCP Madness!

To help me fully grasp the concept of DSCP I have written a few notes below. I was struggling with the drop values and also the structure of the DSCP bit setup.

DSCP – AF Classes

Key point for understanding the Major and Minor drop classes…

  • In the Major Classes, a higher number means /drop value means you are LESS likely to be dropped.
  • In the Minor Classes, a higher number/drop value means you are MORE likely to be dropped.

So for example..

2 DSCP packets come into the router with DSCP markings as follows:

  • AF11
  • AF12

As they are the same Major Class, we look to the Minor Class values… HIGHER number is a HIGHER drop value, therefore AF12 is dropped.

Another example…

  • AF21
  • AF33

Who is dropped? Well the Major Classes here are different, we have AF2 and AF3 Major Classes, therefore AF2 is a LOWER number than AF3 which means a HIGHER drop value, therefore AF21 is dropped over AF33.

Confusing yes… the best way to remember is that the Major and Minor drop classes are the opposite of each other. Just remember Major or Minor and you can’t fail! 😉

DSCP/ECN Bits

226608

If we look at the image above, we have 8 bits in total for DSCP and ECN. ECN occupying the 1st 2 bits on the right hand side and DSCP occupying the other 6 bits.

These 6 DSCP bits are split in half. 3 bits for the Major Class, 3 bits for the Minor Class. However with the Minor Class the last bit is always zero. Therefore we are only interested overall in the 5 bits (right to left)

Therefore a DSCP setup is as follows:

4 2 1 —————————— 2 1

MAJOR—————————MINOR

AF21 = 0 0 1 0 1 0

QoS Exam – Exam Key Points

This post is used to archive key points to know for the exam.

First up is the QoS best practice for VoIP signalling… From the book!!! The practice question was fairly ambigious which didn’t help, but the keyword was ‘call signalling’ not payload… so no codecs to consider. Although we have multiple options for call signalling… 😛 Boo Cisco!!!

QoS Signallingh

150bps

QoS Practice Lab – LLQ

Ok so I have started some of the practice questions for me QoS exam at the end of Feb. I came across a good lab style question which I decided to answer using Cisco Packet Tracer.

Here is the requirement:

LLQ_LAB

I set this  up in Packet Tracer itself and here is my config on R1:

class-map match-all BULK
class-map match-all INTERACTIVE
class-map match-all VOICE
!
policy-map LLQ-POLICY
 class INTERACTIVE
 bandwidth 30
 class BULK
 bandwidth 16
 shape average 24000
 class VOICE
 priority 168
 class class-default
 fair-queue 
interface Serial0/0
 bandwidth 10000000
 ip address 10.1.1.5 255.255.255.252
 service-policy output LLQ-POLICY

Which I believe is correct for the requirement. One of the key points was the question specifies a ‘strict priority queue’ for voice. Therefore you must use the priority command in the policy to enable LLQ. Everything else was fairly straight forward.

Verify:

R1#show policy-map 
 Policy Map LLQ-POLICY
 Class INTERACTIVE
 Bandwidth 30 (kbps) Max Threshold 64 (packets)
 Class BULK
 Bandwidth 16 (kbps) Max Threshold 64 (packets)
 Traffic Shaping
 Average Rate Traffic Shaping
 CIR 24000 (bps) Max. Buffers Limit 1000 (Packets)
 Class VOICE
 Strict Priority
 Bandwidth 168 (kbps) Burst 4200 (Bytes)
 Class class-default
 Flow based Fair Queueing
 Bandwidth 0 (kbps) Max Threshold 64 (packets)

R1#show policy-map interface Serial 0/0
 Serial0/0
Service-policy output: LLQ-POLICY
Class-map: INTERACTIVE (match-all)
 0 packets, 0 bytes
 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps
 Queueing
 Output Queue: Conversation 265
 Bandwidth 30 (kbps)Max Threshold 64 (packets)
 (pkts matched/bytes matched) 0/0
 (depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
Class-map: BULK (match-all)
 0 packets, 0 bytes
 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps
 Queueing
 Output Queue: Conversation 266
 Bandwidth 16 (kbps)Max Threshold 64 (packets)
 (pkts matched/bytes matched) 0/0
 (depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0
Class-map: VOICE (match-all)
 0 packets, 0 bytes
 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps
 Queueing
 Strict Priority
 Output Queue: Conversation 264
 Bandwidth 168 (kbps) Burst 4200 (Bytes)
 (pkts matched/bytes matched) 0/0
 (total drops/bytes drops) 0/0
Class-map: class-default (match-any)
 7 packets, 2226 bytes
 5 minute offered rate 36 bps, drop rate 0 bps
 Match: any
 Queueing
 Flow Based Fair Queueing
 Maximum number of Hashed Queues 256
 Bandwidth 7500000 (kbps)Max Threshold 64 (packets)
 (total queued/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0